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Information for authors and coauthors of the Middle Awash Monograph Series • Click heading below to jump to section

GeneralEditorial ConventionsTaxonomy and NomenclatureNon-hominid paleontologyCitations and BibliographiesFigures, Tables, Legends MiscallaneousIllustrations


  • The authorship and style of the introduction chapter, the geology chapters, the hominid chapters, and the contextual and concluding chapters is specific to each monograph, but consistency from volume to volume is important. See earlier volumes for guidance, and contact the series editor (TW) for further information.

  • For all faunal chapters, the following standards apply:

    • Authorship: Authorship is to be determined by the volume editor(s). Authorship of non-hominid paleontology (faunal) chapters should be determined not only by scholarship and museum work, but also by an individual's investment in fieldwork, labwork, and efforts at constructing the chapter.
    • Inclusion: It is most often the case that each chapter will comprise one Linnaean family. Less frequently a chapter will apply to a different taxonomic level, as is generally the case with Carnivora, Aves, and some other taxa.
    • Organization:

      • Secondary and tertiary subsections are included to organize the chapter systematically when multiple taxa are present.
        • Secondary sections may be families, subfamilies, tribes, or genera.
        • Tertiary sections are similarly flexible. Chapter authors are free to classify at any level of the hierarchy, and to organize their chapters accordingly.

      • Generic sections are not flexible, and will always follow the prescribed format (see Systematics and taxonomy section) unless identification to genus is not possible.

Editorial Conventions


  • When commas are used in a series, there should be a comma before “and”, i.e. apples, oranges, and grapes.
  • Hyphenation: follow Chicago and Webster's. Hyphenate adjective-noun, noun-noun, noun-adjective, and compound adjective phrases.
  • Proper nouns are capitalized: Bouri Peninsula, Wokari Tuff, Daka Member, Waidedu Vitric Tuff, Bouri Fault Block.
  • Individual specimens: Daka calvaria is lower case.


  • Note that Middle Awash localities are abbreviated when used in the text. For exapmle, ASK-VP-1 is used rather than Asa Koma locality 1.
  • Million years is abbreviated "Ma" with no period. 1.042 ± 0.009 Ma
  • Thousand years is abbreviated "ka" with no period.
  • Teeth are to be abbreviated as follows:
    • left and right are to be abbreviated as L. and R., respectively.
    • Incisor = I; Canine = C; Premolar = P; Molar = M.
    • Uppers are to be indicated by superscripting the number; lowers are to be indicated by subscripting the number (i.e., upper M1 = M1, lower M1 = M1).
    • deciduous=d; “d” prefix: di, dc, dp, dm
    • Examples: left upper P3 = L. P3, right lower M1 = R. M1.
    • If a tooth is not specified as upper or lower then do not use the superscript or subscript, just spell it out (ie Upper or lower. THIS SHOULD BE EXTREMELY INFREQUENT. EDITORS AND PROOFREADERS SHOULD FLAG EVERY OCCURENCE OF TOOTH ABBREVIATIONS THAT DO NOT SPECIFY UPPER OR LOWER.
    • This format also applies to tables.
  • Example abbreviations:

    United States, noun; U.S., adjective
    “etc.”, “i.e.”, “e.g.”, “cf.” only OK in parentheses and in tables
    State abbreviations in refs.: old style, e.g., Washington, D.C.
    “vs.” okay for “versus” everywhere.
    “ssp.” = subspecies; “spp.” = species (pl.)
    “ca.” (not “c.”) = circa
    “et al.” roman
    “Chapter” is not abbreviated within sentences.
    “Figure” is not abbreviated within sentences.
    “Section” is not abbreviated within sentences.


  • DO NOT use the expession "and/or" unless it is absolutely necessary.
  • Dates should be written out, i.e. February 22, 1999.
  • Century names should be spelled out as in twenty-first century (21st century ok in tables).
  • Bolded section headings for the genera should be in italics.
  • Use southern Africa and eastern Africa, not South Africa and East Africa, unless you are referring to the country of South Africa or the 19th/early 20th century British East Africa protectorate. This applies to any similar instance, including North Africa vs. northern Africa.
  • When dental designations are abbreviated and you are referring to multiple teeth, add an apostrophe to indicate this: "L. P3's".
  • Metatarsals and Metacarpals are formatted as follows: "4th metacarpal” and “3rd” metatarsal. Equid convention dictates that MTs and MCs be abbreviated as MT III. It is acceptable to use MC and MT with roman numerals for rays for other taxa too.
  • Capitalize Epochs, but their adjectives, such as "early," "middle," "late," are in lowercase (e.g., early Pliocene, lower Nawata Member).
  • Caplitalize "Member" (e.g., Daka Member, Herto Member).
  • Do not use latin names for muscles, instead, use its common name and do not abbreviate muscle, e.g. temporalis muscle, not m. temporalis.
  • Deciduous teeth should be denoted in all lowercase, e,g, dp instead of dP or DP.
  • References to figures or tables within the text should be capitalized, e.g. see Figure 1.2.
  • References to figures/tables in cited works should be in lowercase, e.g. (Smith, 1989: figure 1).


  • Do insert serial comma (a, b, and c)
  • Do not separate prepositions and verbs from their objects by a colon even if the object is a list.
  • It is not usually necessary to put a comma after short introductory phrase.(After introductory prepositional phrases, insert a comma where needed to avoid ambiguity, however.)
  • Sentence fragment list elements do not get end punctuation.
    (Edit all lists for consistency: a list must be either all sentences or all fragments.)
  • Other: Use en dash (–), not hyphen, in number ranges (1–4 cases).
  • End punc on equations.
  • Cap complete sentences after colon.
  • Parens are ital if the enclosed text begins and ends with ital. Otherwise parens are roman.
  • Always use hyphens, not dashes. This applies to figures and text.

Specific Word/Names

  • Specific words/names are to be spelled as below. Note that American English standards should be used, and not British English standards, e.g. cataloged, NOT catalogued.
    • archaeological
    • arching or arch, e.g. zygomatic arch, not zygomatic arc (not use arc/arcs for metrics)
    • Afar Depression
    • Afar Rift
    • Awash Drainage
    • Awash River
    • Bouri Fault Block
    • Bouri Formation
    • Bouri Peninsula
    • Bouri Village
    • use characters when referring to cladistic features (not characteristics)
    • Ethiopian Highlands
    • Gulley (not Gully)
    • Herto Village
    • use hominid instead of hominin, but some reference titles may use hominin, in which case, you should retain the original usage
    • horn core, not horncore
    • hyena (but Hyaenidae, hyaenids)
    • Middle Awash
    • Olorgesailie
    • provenience (not provenance)
    • southern Africa (not South Africa unless it's referring to the specific country)
    • sub-Saharan
    • temporalis muscle (not m. temporalis)
    • Wokari Tuff


  • Spell out numbers below 10, but use numerals for 10 and above, except for measurements, which should always be in numerals. For example, “there are three horn cores and 11 upper molars.”
  • Spell out the number if it is the first word of a sentence.
  • When both types described above occur within the same paragraph, use 9.7 in Chicago or go to
  • Percentages in the text and captions (but not in figures or tables) should be expressed as a numeral and the word "percent", e,g. 24 percent, not 24%.
  • Page and year spans are separated as follows, e.g. 112–115, 1978–1982.
  • Include a single space between value and units, e.g. 20 cm.
  • Examples:

    >50 m
    a 0.1 Ma interglacial cycle
    2 × 10-3
    the 1960s
    9 ºC, 40 mm, a 40 mm seed
    100× (magnification)
    Ordinals are spelled out under 100, except in Ref. section

Specimen Notations

  • Note that Middle Awash localities are abbreviated. For exapmle, ASK-VP-1 is used rather than Asa Koma locality 1.
  • Middle Awash specimen numbers should not have zeros in front of the numbers: i.e. 2, not 02 or 002. BOU-VP-1/7, not BOU-VP-01/007
  • Middle Awash: ARA-VP-1/1

    There are numerous different numbering systems used for different sites, and sometimes there is inconsistent formating in different publications of the same site. It is imperative that identical formats be used across all chapters of all volumes in the Middle Awash series. It is the responsibility of the volume editors to insure the consistent use of specimen number formats among chapters. Some frequently used numbering formats are included below.

  • Kenya National Museums: KNM-ER xxx
  • British Museum of Natural History (now the Natural History Museum of London): BMNH (not BNHM)
  • Olduvai hominids: OH 8 (not O.H. 8 or OH-8)
  • Laetoli hominids: L.H.-4 (not L.H. 4, LH 4, or LH-4)
  • Hadar specimens: A.L.<SPACE>locality number<hyphen>specimen number, A.L. 200-1a

Conventions Relating to Taxonomy and Nomenclature


  • Species common names are not capitalized, e.g., Asian elephant, not Asian Elephant.
  • Spell out genus names on their first occurrence in the volume, in prominent other areas (first time used in chapter). Abbreviate thereafter, except in sections whose heading is that genus name. In those sections, the heading counts as the first occurrence, and all species names therein appear with the genus name abbreviated.
  • Genus names should be spelled out when they begin a sentence or are used alone.
  • Never abbreviate species names.
  • Per the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the use of multiple-letter genus abbreviations is allowed when more than one species names in a paragraph begins with the same letter. For example, in the Equidae chapter, Equus is abbreviated as E. and Eurygnathohippus as Eu., and in the Hippopotamidae chapter, Hippopotamus is abbreviated as Hip. and Hexaprotodon is abbreviated as Hex.
  • Never use the species name by itself, in the text or in the headings.
  • Formal taxonomic classification headings should have a single word space between the scientific name and the species' author's name.
  • Species author citations take the following form: Kobus kob Erxleben 1977.
  • In the chapter formal taxonomic classification sections, do not follow the genus/author heading with a colon. For example: Kobus kob Erxleben 1777 -not- Kobus kob Erxleben 1777:
  • In the chapter formal taxonomic classification sections, place the author's name and date in parentheses in changed combinations (nomen combinations not published as such by the original authors, ICZN article 51.3). For example, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758) since Panthera was not named until 1816 by Oken.

The Use of Nomenclatorial qualifiers

  • gen. nov. and sp. nov.
    • Use gen. nov. and sp. nov. during the interim between recognition of a new taxon and formal publication.
  • aff. = having affinity, with but not identical to
    • Use aff. when the specimen has affinity to a previously known taxon, but is not identical to it. E.g., aff. Felis (for a new genus), Felis aff. libyca (for a new species), aff. Felis aff. libyca (for a new genus and species).
  • cf. = to be compared to
    • Use cf. when identification as the named taxon is provisional and should be compared to the taxon that follows the qualifier. E.g., cf. Felis (genus is provisionally identified and should be compared to Felis), Felis cf. libyca (species is provisionally identified and should be compared to Felis libyca), cf. Felis cf. libyca (both genus and species are provisionally identified and should be compared to both Felis and F. libyca).
  • sp.
    • Use sp. when the material cannot presently be identified to the species level but may be identifiable at a later date with more specimens.
  • indet.
    • Use indet. when lower level classification is not possible due to the inadequacy of the material for accurate identification, e.g., Felis indet., Felidae indet.

  • References used:
    Bengston, P. 1988. Open Nomenclature. Palaeontology 31, 223-227.
    Matthews, S. C. 1973. Notes on Open Nomenclature and on Synonymy Lists. Palaeontology 16, 713-719.
    Kornicker, L. S. 1979. The Question Mark in Taxonomic Literature. J. Paleontology 53, 761.

Non-hominid paleontology chapter basic layout

  • The following is an example of the basic layout for a non-hominid paleontology chapter. Flexibility is allowable in formatting. For example, genera may be presented directly under family if subfamilies and tribes are not useful in a group’s systematics.

    • Chapter X: Family “FAMILIDAE”
    • X.1 Introduction: Abundance and preservation of focus taxon in the volume stratigraphic interval
    • X.2 Natural history of “FAMILIDAE”
      • X.2.1 Morphological Evidence
      • X.2.2 Molecular Evidence
    • X.3 Outstanding systematic problems in "FAMILIDAE" to be addressed by the stratigraphic unit's fossils
    • X.4 Subfamily “SUBFAMILINAE A”
      • X.4.1 Natural history of “SUBFAMILINAE”
      • X.4.2 Tribe “TRIBINI A”
        • X.4.2.1 Natural history of “TRIBINI A”
      • X.4.3 Tribe “TRIBINI B”
    • X.5 Subfamily “SUBFAMILINAE B” (format as X.4)
    • X.6 Conclusions
      • X.6.1 Contributions of the volume stratigraphic interval fossils to systematic understanding of focus taxon
      • X.6.2 Prospectus for future studies on the volume stratigraphic interval fossils

  • Follow all ICZN rules!

  • Non-hominid paleontology chapter layout-genus and below

    • Linnaean hierarchies at the beginning of systematic paleontology sections should only provide genus and species names. Other ranks in the Linneanan heirarchy are presented in section headings.
    • Some flexibility is allowable in formatting. When referring fragmentary remains to an existing taxon (for example, when a single metatarsal is referred to P. cf. leo) it is not necessary to include a complete diagnosis (see below).

Formatting Guide for Citations and Bibliographies

  • In-text citations should adhere to the following style examples:

    • (Smith, 1978)
    • (Smith, 2004a: 234)
    • (Smith, 1998a, b; Jones, 1978, 2003)
    • (Smith and Jones, 1989: figure 3.8)
    • (Smith et al., 2005)
    • (Smith, in press)
    • (Smith, personal communication)

  • Formatting of bibliography references

    • Genus and species names should be italicized
    • Journal titles should not be abbreviated
    • One space after a period or comma; no space after the colon that follows journal volume
    • Capitalization of titles in bibliographies
    • Book titles and journal names use headline style capitalization where every word is capitalized
    • Journal articles and book chapters use sentence style capitalization where only the first word is capitalized
    • Foreign language titles should be capitalized according to the preference of the foreign language (e.g., sentence style for Romance languages)
    • References are in a consolidated reference section at end of book. Chapter copy editor, if a freelancer, should not edit the references in the chapter file. Instead, just put “used” after a reference in the chapter reference section when that reference is first cited in text. Sponsoring editor will check the consolidated reference section against the chapter to ensure that references were not dropped and references are consistently cited.
      From transmittal: “Use the combined back-of-book reference list, not the individual chapter ones. The repeated entries are intentional; they contain variant information, and the three editors should adjudicate during their review of CE.”
      In-text callouts: No comma between author name and year in parentheses (except internal references to other chapters); semicolons between each two references within same set of parentheses. “et al.” in callouts for 3 or more authors. Use colon and space between year and page if a page is included in the citation. For a range, use en dash and full number for ending page. Order citations chronologically within each pair of parens. Use letters separated by comma between two references with the same authors (or same lead author et al.) and date (Nauthor et al. 2008a,b); use en dash if three or more such refs (Nauthor et al. 1998a–c).
      The following style is for use in final edit of the consolidated reference section.

      Book: Thisbook, R. O. 1999. Title of Book Roman with Title Caps, 2nd edition. Publisher, Place.
      Journal articles: Nauthor, I. M. A., and Therauthor, N. O. 2007. Title of the article roman, sentence caps, without quotation marks: Capitalized subtitle after colon. Journal with Title Ital Spelled Out with Title Caps If English 15:257–278.
      ———. 2008a. Italicization of genus and species names in references by Homo sapiens, and use of 3-em dash for subsequent works by the same set of authors (in this case, Nauthor and Therauthor). Journal Title in Title Caps If English 103(4):13–35.
      ———. 2008b. Titel des Artikels mit der zur Sprache gehörigen Großschreibung. Journal avec Titre en Majuscules et Minuscules 103(5):36–49.
      ———. 2008c. A third publication by the same authors. Journal of Alternative Publications 1:1–13.
      [Note: Geobios has no accent mark.]
      Chapter in book: Oldhack, N. E. 1998. Title of chapter treated just like the title of a journal article. In E. Ditter and R. E. Dacter (eds.), Title of the Book Roman with Title Caps, pp. 147–162. Series Name in Title Caps If Present 22. Publisher, Place.
      Thesis: Grad, M. A. 2005. Title of Thesis Treated like the Title of a Book: Call It a Thesis Even If It’s Described as a Dissertation. Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana.
      Web site: Wyred, I. M. 2006. Title of Web site. Publisher of Web site. (accessed March 20, 2007).

      Publishers and places:
      Name of state part of publisher name: University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
      Disambiguation: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
      State in USA: Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

      Internal cross-references: (see Author et al., Chapter 6). Author et al. (Chapter 6) say the same thing (Author in press). This author has not just one book in press (Author in press, a) but two (Author in press, b).

      Order entries with the same lead author as follows:

      • Author solo: by date (Roe 1973, Roe 1985), then
      • Author and one other author: by name of other author and date (Roe and Buck 1979, Roe and Doe 1973), then
      • Author et al.: by date and by names of following authors within a date (Roe, Rohe, and Rowe 1977; Roe, Beau, and Kopp 1981a; Roe, Rowe, Rohe, and Yerbote 1981b)

      Entries with the same set of authors and date should be ordered by publication information if available, e.g., two subsequent articles in the same journal ordered by page number; otherwise, by title.
      Reprints: Follow reference by Reprint, Publisher, Place, Year.

Editorial Conventions Relating to Figures and Tables

  • Provide units for tabular data in legend or provide global protocolfor units in introductory chapters.
  • Generic names (genera) should be spelled out in the text and ALSO in the subheading.
  • Missing data are left blank in tables. Use an x to indicate "broken, unmeasurable", -, or other abbreviation.
  • Figures are labeled in Gill Sans font. Labels are made with capital letters and NO period.
    • All photographs should be labeled "A," "B," etc., not with directional terms. Other than this, all labeling is handled in the text.
    • Illustrations (eg. strat columns, maps, and graphs) are exceptions to this rule.
  • The format for figure captions is as follows: Daka wildebeest cranium BOU-VP-2/34. A. Lateral view. B. Superior view. C. Inferior view. D. Anterior view.
    • Include the word "view" as in the caption as above.
    • Figure caption is Ic/lc, with end period. General lead-in before part captions, ending in period. A. Caption for the A part. B. Caption for the B part. Views should always be followed by “view” and be in English: “Cranial view”; “Lateral view” (not Norma lateralis); “Inferior view” (not Norma basilaris). Don’t use directional references instead of letters.
  • In-text references to specific views should take the form: (see Figure 3.4 C and D).
    • Leave a space between the number and letter. See earlier volumes for guidance.
  • Scale bars will be replaced by UC Press to conform with earlier volumes.
  • Figure number format: Figure 2.1A. For a figure in a source outside this book, lowercase the f. For a figure in a different chapter in this book, just say Figure 2.1A, not Figure 2.1A in Chapter 2.
  • Figure acknowledgment (“Photograph by”...) should be sentence fragment with end period, no parens.
  • Plots: these are to remain a separate section, and numbered separately from plates and figures
  • Plates: these are to be a separate section within the chapter’s text (only chapter 7).
  • Plate, figure, and plot references expressed as display headings should go into the main text.
  • Table number format: Table 1.1
  • Table title C/Lc, no period
  • Table column heads Ic/lc; check to make sure proper nouns mentioned as such in text are also capped in table heads
  • Table footnote explaining abbreviations: note: AP = anterioposterior. Insert “note:” in small caps in every instance of a table note. This note, explaining the abbreviations and giving the sources, should be keymarked [TSN]. Delete the lead-in “Abbreviations.”
  • Other table footnotes referenced from within the table body are indexed with superscript ital letters and keymarked [TFN].
  • Abbreviate In cells that contain a hyphen rather than a value, change hyphen to em dash.

    Illustration and art guidelines

    Actual size. Hominid fossils should be prepared at actual size when the page dimension will allow (maximum 6.5 inches wide, 6.5 inches deep).

    Size synchronocity. Where fossils, out of necessity, are reproduced at some fraction of enlargement or reduction that differs from actual size, please check for the standard application of  sizing parameters to like items. To put it more plainly, if a hippo jawbone in a chapter is reproduced at 40 percent of actual size, please check that all other hippo jawbones and associated fossils (crania, etc.) are at the same percentage of actual.

    Center fossils. Where a figure contains only one fossil, please ensure that the bone is centered horizontally and vertically in the image space. (In plates, center on the entire page, not the measure, which is heavily offset.)  It is not necessary for the space to be identical all around, but top and bottom should match, as should the sides. Where a figure contains multiple specimens, check that columns of fossils either (a) are center-align on the center of the widest fossil or (b) align in such a way that different perspectives of the same bone align their features. In these figures, equalize the spaces among columns, and center the whole image (including labels and scales) in the image space horizontally and vertically.

    Set labels and scales. Our vendor will handle setting of labels, scales, and plate captions, but you may wish to emulate volume 1’s design more closely so that problems they cause are resolved earlier. In particular, some scales have been as large as the objects they accompany and we’ve had to rearrange the figure contents dramatically once the scale is replaced.

    Tuck in labels and scales. If a label or scale sits outside of the image space defined by the outermost points of its component fossils, this type may “tip” the balance when centering. Therefore, if there’s room for the errant type element to be tucked inside the image space, do so and then center all image content after making this adjustment.

    Typographic figures. Where possible, draw graphs of similar kinds using the same axis lengths, line weights, and type sizes.

Miscellaneous notes and conventions

General notes on typography:
Copy editor is to delete art images from chapter manuscript files.
Indent paragraph using a tab character, not paragraph first-line-indent settings.

Miscellaneous Notes:

  • Do hyphenate all participle-terminated prenominal compound adjectives.
  • Do hyphenate predicative compound adjectives that are participle-terminated.
  • Do not treat noun-adjective compound adjectives in general in the same way as
    participle-terminated ones.
  • Do not hyphenate compound adjectives consisting of noun modifying noun
    (e.g., “water quality analysis”).
  • Use a hyphen in compound adjectives consisting of two joined nouns
    (e.g., “Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact”).
  • Do hyphenate adverbially modified compound adjectives
    if the adverb does not end in -ly.
  • Once we ensure the occurrence of an event, we can assure ourselves that it will take place. By insuring against risk, we ensure that we will not suffer excessive loss.
  • When introduced or defined, a word should be italic.
  • The word “word,” as a word, should be roman in quotation marks.
  • Geological and archaeological periods are capitalized, but not modifiers such as “early,” “late,” “lower,” or “upper”. Exception: Middle Awash.
  • Isotopes take this form: 14C
  • Tables should always state units of measurement, using “legends, footnotes, or some other association”; query if units missing.
  • Table specimen designation column must always have head “Specimen”.
  • In introducing a species, repeat the genus in front of the species in the H3.
  • Site abbreviations such as “ZKD” for Zhoukoudian should be used in specimen designations but not in referring to the site itself.
  • Check personal names for consistency. In Gilbert07, Jon Kalb’s name was spelled once correctly and many times incorrectly as “John”; we didn’t even query for the correct spelling.
  • Specimen account heads are followed by parenthetical expressions of synonymy. These will be set as GT, retaining the parens, but delete the word “Synonymy” where it appears as a heading because most occurrences are not limited to synonyms.
  • Contiguous groups of the same kind of teeth in the same specimen must have the tooth identifier repeated: M1–M3, not M1–3.

Abbreviations in these entries:
n = noun
v = verb
a/n = adjective before noun
pa = predicate adjective
s = singular
pl = plural


aboveground (adj)
Adu-Asa Formation
Adu Dora (no hyphen)
aeolian (not eolian)
Aïn Maarouf
Andossa, L. should be Likius, A.
Aramis Member
archaeological (not archeological)
arching (not arcing)
Ardipithecus kadabba (abbreviate Ar. kadabba)
Asa Koma Member




Camelidae (family); camelid
case study (a/n)
cataloged (not catalogued)
character (don’t change to characteristic)
close-up (n, adj)
corpus, pl. corpora
covary (v.)
cross section (n.)


data are plural
die-off (n.)


eastern Africa (not East Africa)
en-echelon displaced


find spot




half graben
horn core (not horncore)
hyaena (not hyena)
hypsodonty index h

illuvial (don’t change to alluvial)
in-situ (adj)


KNM-ER xxxx (Kenya National Museum specimens)
Kuseralee Member


Laetoli (site), but Laetolil Beds is OK with final ell
land use (adj)
life history (adj)
-like (hyphenate even after monosyllable)


a M1
Middle Awash
mixed magma (n, adj)
muscles: temporalis muscle, not m. temporalis


non[closed up un­less listed here]
Northern Hemisphere (CMS 8.50)

OH 8


Ph.D. thesis
pin flag
pli caballin, pli caballins (pl)
principal components analysis
provenience (not provenance)


re[closed up unless listed here]


Sagantole Formation
sensu lato, stricto
southern Africa (not South Africa unless the country)
Southern Hemisphere
stage of wear (n)
state-of-the-art (adj)
subarctic (generally, e.g., subarctic type of climate)
surface water


tephra: one kind of tephra is a tephra, more than one kind are tephras
<direction>-trending (adj)
<direction>-<direction> trending (adj)


under way (adv.)


vertic (don’t change to vertical)


web site
western margin (of the Middle Awash study area)
]wide (closed up)
Wilks’s l






Asfaw, Alemayehu
de Heinzelin, Jean
Jean-Renaud Boisserie
Haile-Selassie, Yohannes
Kalb, Jon
WoldeGabriel, Giday


Ado Bolo
Ado Faro
Ado Fila hill
Adu-Asa Formation (note hyphen; so called because it includes Adu Dora and Asa Koma)
Adu Dora (abbreviated ADD in specimen codes)
Alayla (abbreviated ALA in specimen codes)
Ali Ferou Dora (abbreviated AFD in specimen codes)
Amba (Amba East = AME, Amba West = AMW)
Ankarara Basaltic Tuff (ANBT)
Asa Ali
Asa Issie
Asa Koma (ASK); as a member, it includes ADD, AFD, ALA, BIK, BIL, DID, GAS, JAB, KWA, and STD as well
Bakella Basaltic Tuff (BABT)
Bikir Mali Koma (BIK)
Bilta (BIL)
Chorora Formation
Cindery Tuff (CT)
Digiba Dora (DID)
Dobaado Basaltic Tuff (DOBT)
Gàala Tuff Complex (GATC)
Gaysale (GAS)
Gawto basalt
Hada la Ella
Hadar Formation
Hantuuta Basaltic Tuff (HABT)
Haradaso Member
Hargunayu stream
Hatayae Graben
Hindo Kali
Jara Borkana (JAB)
Kabanawa (KWA)
Kuseralee Dora (KUS), Kuseralee Member includes AME and AMW as well as KUS
Ladina Basaltic Tuff (LABT)
Matabaitu Formation
Sagala Ali
Sagantole Formation
Saitune Dora (STD)
Wehaitu Formation
Whydola Koma

Witti Mixed Magmatic Tuff (WMMT)


The following section is retained for historical purposes. It is a proofreaders guide, but might be of use to editors.

For each chapter bibliography, after checking to see that all citations in the chapter have a corresponding citation in the chapter bibliography, it is time to CHECK THE CHAPTER BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR CONSISTENCY.

BELOW you will find a protocol that must be run on each bibliography. This involves a set of checks that need to be made.

FIRST, finish Check No. 1 for each reference in the entire bibliography (instructions for Check No. 1 are given below). This Check concerns the order of the references in the blbliography.

THEN, after finishing Check No. 1 for each entry, start again from the top of the bibliography with Check No. 2. Proceed to check EACH citation according to the instructions for Check No. 2. Perform all of Check No. 2 for all entries before proceeding to Check No. 3, etc.


REMEMBER only one space after each period, throughout the bibliography.

Check No. 1
For bibiographic entries with the same first (lead) author, check the order of the citation. Follow this order by convention:

•all the single-author entries arranged by increasing year,

•followed by multiple author references with this person listed as first author (arranged first alphabetically using secondary and tertiary, then by increasing year).

EXAMPLE: Broom, R. 1936., followed by Broom, R. 1938., followed by Broom, R., and J. Robinson. 1942., followed by Broom, R., J. Robinson, and C. K. Brain. 1943.

Check No. 2
CHECK to see if there are any bibliographic entries that have identical author(s) and year. FLAG THESE IN THE MARGIN . The editor will assign letter (a) to the FIRST citation mentioned in the text, and (b) for the second, etc., in both text and bibliography.

Check No. 3
CHECK to see that the first author's initials come AFTER his/her last name. If multiple authors, initials for all of the others should come BEFORE each authors' last name.

Check No. 4
CHECK to see that for references with a single author there is NO COMMA before the year. Example: Dart, R.A. 1949

Check No. 5
CHECK to see that there is a period after all author initials. If author has more than 1 letter in his/her initial, make sure there is a space between the period and the next letter. Example: Hallgrímsson, B., and B. K. Hall.

Check No. 6
For multiple authors, CHECK that the symbol "&" is NOT used before the last author. Instead, use "and" before the last author's last name, and use a "comma" before "and". Example: Hallgrímsson, B., and B. K. Hall.

Check No. 7
CHECK spacing and periods around the year (single spaces, period after year).

Check No. 8
CHECK that all genus and species names are in italics. CHECK that genus is capitalized and species is not.


Check No. 9
CHECK for period and single space between title and journal.

Check No. 10
CHECK to eliminate ALL abbreviations in journal titles. If you do not know the unabbreviated journal title that corresponds with the abbreviation, FLAG IT IN THE MARGIN for the editor.

Check No. 11
CHECK that the journal title is followed by a COMMA and then a single space.

Check No. 12
CHECK that the reference proceeds as follows: Volume number--colon--page numbers (separated by dash with no spaces)--period. NO ISSUE NUMBERS, EVER, only volume and page numbers. Example: Nature, 356:45-64.


Check No. 9
CHECK for period and single space between title and "In" (capitalized, without colon or comma).

Check No. 10
CHECK for (ed.) or (eds.), NOT capitalized, period after each, in parentheses.

Check No. 11
CHECK that (ed.) or (eds.) is followed by a comma, then a single space.

Check No. 12
CHECK that all editors' initials PRECEDE their last names, including the first editor's.

Check No. 13
CHECK that book title is capitalized.

Check No. 14
CHECK that the article title and the book title are BOTH followed by periods.

Check No. 15
CHECK that page numbers are followed by a period and a space. Example: pp. 22-24.


Check No. 9
CHECK that the book or thesis title is followed by a period, then a single space.

Check No. 10
CHECK to see that IF the book has a subtitle, there is a space after the colon, AND that the first letter of the subtitle is capitalized.

Check No. 11
For theses, CHECK that there are no spaces between the abbreviations for the degree. Example: Ph.D., M.A., M.Sc.; NOT Ph. D., M. A., M. Sc..

Check No. 12
CHECK to replace "Dissertation" with "Thesis" (capitalized) in thesis citations, followed by a period and a single space. Example: Ph.D. Thesis.

Check No. 13
CHECK for order: Publisher, [COMMA] City. For multiple cities, separate these by commas. Example: Los Angeles, Toronto, and New York. In theses, the publisher is the school.

Check No. 14
CHECK to eliminate entry of total number of pages in all books/theses.

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